Agriculture In South Sudan

Copyright (c) 2012 Morgan D

Food production, as well as pastures is la-di-da by the distribution of rainfall. Therefore, although rainfall received in the region may live normal, the distribution may nay be even, which results in poor production. In few cases, the rainfall comes erstwhile in the growing propitious for the different crops resulting in inundation and destruction of the mature harvest. In some cases, the absence of irrigation leads to poor harvests despite receiving adequate rainfall in the given regions. This is because about the time when the rains come, which may prohibition be optimal for the crops grown.

Rainfall in strange parts of South Sudan such as the Upper Nile has bot declining steadily since 1970, with reductions like up to 20% for some parts of South Sudan. The regions of South Sudan where rain fed saturn practiced have contracted in the past 20 years leading to low yields in agriculture. This effect has been most severe in the Upper Nile (Mphatso, 2011). Temperature in the purlieu has also increased by surrounding 1oC across South Sudan. This has led to the increase in hot areas in the region. The high temperature has resulted in increasing the size of the region that experience average temperatures above 300C.

These high temperature regions are also characterized toward meager vegetation further low rainfall levels. The patterns mapped published for the rise in temperature also correspond with the markdown in precipitation received in the regions. Mount in temperature results, in increased evaporation from the soil, therefore, reducing the moist content like the soil. This, in turn, reduces agricultural productivity because of reduction in the water available for the crops. High temperature also increases the value of transpiration near to the plant, which causes wilting in the dry weather.

The effects of the climate change on evapotranspiration are increased severe than the effects changes in rainfall on the agricultural sector in South Sudan. A positive effect of climate change for crop play is the rising concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This results in improved photosynthesis, therefore, increasing the productivity like different crops.Most about the smallholder farmers in the region answer to low cost methods from adaptation in order to mitigate the effects of climate interchange on the productivity of their farms. However, the frustration to adapt in any way results in, dire effects for the sector. Farmers with financial capability hold used effective methods of adaptation to the changing ambience such as irrigation and mechanization in their farms. Else farmers choose small-scale conformation measures such as rainwater harvesting (Boko, et al., 2007).

According to Mohammad (1992), the effects of climate change on agriculture are yet visible in the area under cultivation for different crops in the region.The comparison of land neighborhood neath cultivation from 2008 to 2009 shows that Sorghum farming reduced at about 60%, and maize framing reduced at 59%, which left maize farming in the enclave at 36% in 2008. Entirely five percent of the households increased the area of land that was below maize cultivation. On average, only 9.14 % of the farmers increased the area under tillage in 2009. 35 % of the farmers retained the coordinate area as they had cultivated in 2008. However, the largest percentage about farmers (55.9 %) reduced the area that was under cultivation in 2009 compared to 2008. This indicates the deteriorating conditions for agriculture in the region. Reduction in the area under cultivation leads to reduction in output and take for the farmers (FAO & WFP, 2010).

The study shows the negative effects of climate change on the agricultural sector, which depends largely on weather conditions. Climate change has a net negative effect on agricultural productivity. This shows that efforts have to be made in order to mitigate the resisting effects from climate change in order to prevent food paucity in south Sudan. Reliance on traditional methods of agriculture by most of the farmers results in low productivity, in the farms. In South Sudan, most agriculture is rain fed and small scale, which reduces the possibility of mechanization.

Efforts by the government to sensitize farmers on the importance of modern technology and irrigation have had borderline benefits. More effort is required by the government in consecution to improve food security in the region. The scale like agricultural projects has to change in order to ensure that the effects of reduced rainfall mitigated by reducing reliance on rainfall for agricultural production. This is because the relationship between agricultural productivity and amount of rainfall is high implying that there is over reliance on rainfall. This study also shows that maritime change has a negative effect on animal rearing because fodder is also negatively affected by climate change.

Another observable feature from the sector in Sudan is that there is steady reduction in the environment under the unique crops in the region. Most of the households have been reducing the area under cultivation for the different crops each year. This results from failure of the crops in the preceding years, which affects the morale and prospects for the farmers. This also results from lack of seeds due to failure of the crops in the preceding years, which are secondhand ut supra seeds for the following years. The government tin soothe this reduction by providing the farmers with certified seeds to use in their farms.

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